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          Phonics + Spelling + Vocabulary Instruction = Word Study 
     
    Word study teaches students how to look closely at words to discover the regularities and conventions of English orthography, or spelling. It takes the place of traditional spelling and vocabulary approaches, such as skill instruction, scope and sequence, or repeated practice.
     
    Literacy is like a braid of interwoven threads. The braid begins with the intertwining threads of oral language and stories. As children experiment with putting ideas on paper, a writing thread is intertwined as well. As children move into reading, the threads of literacy begin to bond. Students’ growing knowledge of spelling or orthography—the correct sequences of letters in the writing system—strengthens that bonding. The size of the threads and the braid itself become thicker as orthographic knowledge grows.
     
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