Core Ideas The Arizona Science Standards focus on thirteen core ideas in science and engineering, adapted from Working with Big Ideas of Science Education. 2 The ten core ideas for Knowing Science center on understanding the causes of phenomena in physical, earth and space, and life science. The three core ideas for Using Science connect scientific principles, theories, and models; engineering and technological applications; and societal implications to the content knowledge to support that understanding. The complexity of each core idea develops as students’ progress through each grade band. Each standard is written at the intersection of two core ideas to help students understand both the process of knowing science and using science. These core ideas occur across grade levels and provide the background knowledge for students to develop sense-making around phenomena in the natural world.
The core ideas are listed below.
P1: All matter in the Universe is made of very small particles.
P2: Objects can affect other objects at a distance.
P3: Changing the movement of an object requires a net force to be acting on it.
P4: The total amount of energy in a closed system is always the same but can be transferred from one energy store to another during an event.
Earth and Space Science
E1: The composition of the Earth and its atmosphere and the natural and human processes occurring within them shape the Earth’s surface and its climate.
E2: The Earth and our solar system are a very small part of one of many galaxies within the Universe.
L1: Organisms are organized on a cellular basis and have a finite life span.
L2: Organisms require a supply of energy and materials for which they often depend on, or compete with, other organisms.
L3: Genetic information is passed down from one generation of organisms to another.
L4: The unity and diversity of organisms, living and extinct, is the result of evolution.
*Adapted from Working with Big Ideas in Science Education2