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    Elements of Grading: Effective Grading Practices

    Problem with 100-Point Grading Scale

    Toxic Grading Practices

    Redos, Re-Takes, and Do-Overs

    Penalties For Missing or Late Work

    Late Work: The Penalty for Late Work Is Doing the Work

    Grading Malpractice



    Brookhart, S. (1994). Teachers’ grading: Practice and theory. Applied Measurement in Education, 7(4), 279-301.

    DuFour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Solution Tree Press.

    Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Pumpian, I. (2011). No penalties for practice. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 46-51. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educa tional-leadership/nov11/vol69/num03/abstract.aspx

    Guskey, T. R. (2011). Five obstacles to grading reform. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 16-21. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educa tional-leadership/nov11/vol69/num/03/ abstract.aspx

    Guskey, T. R., Swan, G. M., & Jung, L. A. (2011). Grades that mean something: Kentucky develops standards-based report cards. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(2), 52-57.

    Marzano, R. (2000). Transforming classroom grading. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

    McTighe, J., & O’Connor, K. (2005). Seven practices for effective learning. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 10-17

    Muñoz, M. A., & Guskey, T. R. (2015). Standards-based grading and reporting will improve education. Phi Delta Kappan, 96(7), 64-68. doi:10.1177/0031721715579043

    O’Connor, K. (2010). A repair kit for grading: 15 fixes for broken grades. London, UK: Pearson Education.

    Popham, J. (2011). Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know. Boston, MA: Pearson.

    Reeves, D. (2004). Making standards work: How to implement standards-based assessments in the classroom, school, and district. Englewood, CO: Advanced Learning Press.

    Schimmer, Tom. Grading from the Inside Out : Bringing Accuracy to Student Assessment through a Standards-Based Mindset. Solution Tree Press, a division of Solution Tree, 2016.

    Swan, G. M., Guskey, T. R., & Jung, L. A. (2014). Parents’ and teachers’ perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 26, 289-299. doi:10.1007/s11092-014-9191-4

    Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment: Designing assessments to inform and improve student performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.



    PowerSchool. (2021, March), Standards-Based Grading: What To Know for the 2021-2022 School Year, Blog post.

    Peters, Randal and Buckmiller, Tom (2014) Our Grades Were Broken: Overcoming Barriers and Challenges to Implementing Standards-Based Grading, Journal of Educational Leadership in Action: Vol. 2: Iss. 2, Article 2.

    Veenstra, K. (2021), The Effects of Standards-Based Grading and Strategies for Implementation, A Review of Literature for Northwestern College, Iowa.

    Carberry, A. R., & Siniawski, M., & Atwood, S. A., & Diefes-Dux, H. A. (2016, June), Best Practices for Using Standards-based Grading in Engineering Courses, paper presented at 2016 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, New Orleans, Louisiana.10.18260/p26379